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Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by extreme shifts in mood and energy levels.
While genes play an important role in one’s vulnerability, environmental factors are also known to influence its development and course.
Researchers have intensely studied one particular aspect – the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use.
Scientists are investigating both recreational substances and prescription medications to better understand their interplay with mood regulation and bipolar symptoms.
In this article, we will explore what science tells us about what role, if any, drug use plays in the onset of bipolar disorder.
From family history to temporary drug effects, learn how the pieces fit together and what this tangled situation means for treatment.
Understanding Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme and fluctuating shifts in a person’s mood, energy levels, and functioning.
Individuals with this disorder experience periods of elevated mood as well as depressive episodes, often with shifts happening over days to weeks at a time.
Between mood episodes, most individuals with bipolar live functionally without symptoms. However, some experience ongoing subthreshold depressive or irritable symptoms.
There are three main types of mood episodes associated with bipolar disorder.
1. Depressive Episode
A depressive episode involves experiencing symptoms of depression, such as persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite, sleep disturbances, and fatigue.
During these periods, a person’s mood is characterized as feeling severely “down” most of the time for at least two weeks. Depressive episodes can greatly impact one’s daily functioning and quality of life.
2. Manic Episode
In contrast to depressive episodes, a manic episode involves a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated mood.
Symptoms may include inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, distractibility, increase in goal-directed activity, and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities without consideration for consequences.
Manic episodes can last for weeks and result in severe impairment without treatment.
3. Hypomanic Episode
A hypomanic episode shares features with mania but involves mood changes and symptoms that are not as severe.
Episodes include periods of abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting a minimum of four days. Impairment is present, but not to the extent of a full manic episode.
Hypomania can be difficult to recognize and may be perceived by others as high energy or enthusiasm rather than a bipolar disorder symptom.
Bipolar I involves manic or mixed episodes while bipolar II involves hypomanic and depressive episodes.
On the other hand, cyclothymia is marked by numerous periods of hypomanic and depressive symptoms lasting for extended periods but not meeting the criteria for full episodes.
The specific symptoms and their severity can vary greatly between individuals and episodes.
Bipolar is a lifelong condition with no cure. However, treatments such as mood stabilizing medications, psychotherapy, supplements, and lifestyle changes help manage symptoms and allow individuals to lead productive lives.
Left untreated, bipolar disorder can be severely disabling due to unpredictable mood shifts and increased risk for substance abuse or suicide.
Causes and Risk Factors of Bipolar Disorder
While the exact causes of bipolar disorder are unknown, research suggests that it likely develops from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, and environmental factors.
Bipolar disorder tends to run in families, suggesting a strong genetic component.
Having a first-degree relative like a parent or sibling with the condition increases an individual’s risk significantly.
2. Brain Structure and Chemistry
Imbalances in neurotransmitters regulate mood have been linked to bipolar disorder.
Brain imaging research has also found structural and functional abnormalities in regions involved in mood regulation.
3. Stress and Life Events
Major stressful life events, traumas, or difficulties seem to act as triggers for the first onset or recurrence of mood episodes in those predisposed.
Difficulties like relationship issues, financial strain, or health problems are also considered common precipitants.
4. Other Medical Conditions
Some medical conditions and diseases plus substances like alcohol or drugs of abuse have shown associations with increased bipolar disorder risk and worse outcomes when present alongside it.
While not deterministic, genetics and neurobiology paired with environmental stressors are thought to collectively contribute to the likelihood of developing bipolar disorder.
The Relationship Between Drug Use and Bipolar Disorder
A strong connection exists between drug use and bipolar disorder, evident in the high rates of alcohol and drug abuse among individuals with bipolar compared to the general population.
In fact, bipolar disorder poses the highest risk of co-occurring drug use issues out of any major mental health condition.
Moreover, certain prescription medications used to treat medical conditions can also induce bipolar-like symptoms, especially mania, through various neurological mechanisms.
There are several ways in which drug use interacts with and exacerbates bipolar symptoms and risks.
Intoxicating substances themselves can lower impulse control and disrupt sleep, two important protective factors, often triggering mood episodes in those predisposed to bipolar disorder.
Continued use then worsens existing symptoms, like depression, mania, impulsivity, and psychosis over time.
Drugs also interfere with adherence to bipolar medications that are crucial for stability, leading to less regulated moods and risks of suicide attempts, hospitalization, or other life problems.
Some people also report using drugs as a way to “self-medicate” excruciating symptoms before receiving proper treatment, leading to overconsumption and dependence issues.
How Drug Use May Trigger Bipolar Symptoms
While drug use alone does not cause bipolar disorder, it can be a major precipitating factor for the onset of bipolar symptoms.
Those with a family history of bipolar are genetically predisposed, giving drugs more power to exacerbate their vulnerabilities and potentially bring about an earlier onset of symptoms.
Drug use can also induce temporary bipolar-like symptoms independently through direct neurotoxic effects. This condition is known as substance-induced bipolar disorder.
During periods of intoxication and withdrawal, individuals may exhibit symptoms meeting diagnostic criteria for mania or hypomania, which subside once the acute effects of the substance wear off.
However, ongoing or heavy drug use carries the risk of perpetuating induced mood changes, creating a complex cycle that complicates the course of bipolar symptoms.
Brain scans have highlighted alterations in areas that regulate feelings and the brain’s reward system.
This reveals the substantial impact of substance use on neural circuits, contributing to mood-related challenges.
Drugs that alter the balance of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin within key brain circuits involved in emotion can disrupt a person’s mood regulation.
Disturbances in these neurotransmitters within the prefrontal cortex (responsible for reasoning) and mesolimbic pathway (linked to motivation and pleasure) play a role in substance-induced mood issues.
As a result, someone experiencing mood issues caused solely by recent drug use may outwardly show symptoms much like bipolar disorder.
Which Drugs May Contribute to Bipolar Disorder?
Research highlights a significant correlation between drug use and the precipitation of depressive episodes, with specific drugs carrying a higher risk.
These substances, when introduced into the system, may induce manic episodes, especially in individuals with pre-existing bipolar affective disorder.
Moreover, the class of antidepressants, including tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, has been implicated in inducing mania in patients with underlying bipolar conditions.
This highlights the importance of a nuanced understanding of drug interactions and their potential impact on mood regulation, particularly in individuals susceptible to bipolar disorder.
Distinguishing Drug-Induced Mood Episodes from Bipolar Disorder
Distinguishing bipolar disorder from a transient drug-induced mood episode is an important step before assigning a dual diagnosis of bipolar and substance abuse.
The diagnostic process involves a thorough examination to determine if the bipolar symptoms are a result of recreational or medicinal drug use.
When symptoms are connected to substance use, a common pattern emerges: they typically subside within a month after discontinuing severe substance use, during intoxication, or following withdrawal.
This temporal factor serves as a key indicator to differentiate drug-induced effects from independent bipolar symptoms.
For a diagnosis of drug-induced bipolar or another mood disorder, the diagnostic criteria mirror those for independent mood disorders.
If the symptoms persist beyond the time frame associated with substance use, it suggests the possibility of an independent bipolar disorder.
At this point, the mental health professional must assess whether a concurrent diagnosis of substance abuse is warranted or if the symptoms stem solely from medicinal drugs administered during another treatment.
This evaluation ensures accurate diagnosis and paves the way for tailored and effective interventions.
Treatment of Bipolar Disorder Induced by Drug Use
The first line of treatment for drug-induced bipolar disorder involves stopping the use of illicit recreational drugs that are known to be triggering manic or hypomanic symptoms.
Completely eliminating the substance is important to determine if symptoms subside on their own once drug effects have left the body.
For cases where a prescription medication may be inducing bipolar-like symptoms, the initial approach is usually discontinuing or reducing the dosage of the suspected drug, if medically advisable based on the patient’s overall healthcare needs.
If symptoms persist even after substance use has fully ceased, additional medication-based treatment may be needed to manage ongoing manic symptoms.
Research also says that antidepressants are generally safe options for depressive symptoms with co-occurring substance use.
Therapy is also an important part of the treatment plan.
Different types of psychotherapy can be beneficial, such as cognitive behavioral therapy which aims to modify any unhelpful thoughts and behaviors that may be exacerbating symptoms.
Family counseling is also useful as it educates loved ones on signs that the individual’s condition may be worsening so they can provide appropriate lifestyle support.
Close monitoring of substance use remains a crucial part of the treatment process, as even a single relapse could potentially trigger a new mood episode.
Outpatient substance abuse support groups and regular drug screening can help sustain an individual’s recovery efforts over the long term.
For those with more severe or treatment-resistant cases, more intensive outpatient or partial hospitalization programs may be necessary as they provide daily therapy sessions and monitoring.
Specialized dual diagnosis treatment is generally recommended for individuals dealing with co-occurring bipolar disorder and substance abuse conditions.
These rehabilitation programs coordinate care to holistically address both disorders simultaneously through a combination of techniques.
These strategies may include detoxification, individual and group therapy sessions, life skills training, family therapy, and relapse prevention skills development to facilitate stabilization of all presenting conditions.
In conclusion, while drugs alone do not cause bipolar disorder, they can still play an important role in both triggering symptom onset and exacerbating the long-term course of the illness.
Certain medications, recreational drugs, and excessive alcohol use have all been shown to induce transient bipolar-like symptoms or worsening of existing conditions through their direct impacts on brain functioning and neurotransmitter activity.
For vulnerable individuals with a family history of mood disorders, drug use may even act as an environmental stressor bringing about a first bipolar episode earlier than it otherwise would have emerged.
Proper diagnosis and coordinated treatment of any co-occurring substance use disorders alongside specialized bipolar therapies are important to achieve stable recovery and prevent future relapse.
1. Does drinking alcohol increase the risk of bipolar symptoms?
Yes, alcohol is strongly linked to triggering bipolar depressive and manic episodes, especially during intoxication and withdrawal. Those with bipolar are advised to drastically limit intake or quit altogether to help stabilize their condition.
2. If I stop using drugs, will bipolar symptoms go away?
For drug-induced cases, symptoms may subside after substance cessation, but underlying vulnerability factors can still remain. Ongoing treatment and lifestyle changes are usually needed to prevent relapse and long-term management of the condition. Prompt psychiatric care is advised.
3. Are certain substances more likely to trigger bipolar symptoms?
Studies indicate that heavy alcohol use, cocaine, opioids, and other stimulants can be associated with an increased risk of precipitating mood episodes in individuals with bipolar disorder.